Transfer of Data in ICT

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Transfer of Data in ICT systems

About Networks

  • Computer Networking is the linking of two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data, communicating, software and peripherals
  • Local Area Networks/LAN- self contained within a single building or group of buildingd (for example: A School environemnt)
  • Wide Area Networks/WAN- covers a much wider area even worldwide, such as all the offices of a large corporation
  • Metropolitan Area network/MAN- Covers large Areas (for example: City)


  • Lack of access
  • Technical Knowledge needed
  • Cost


  • Improved communication
  • Sharing of resources (Intranets and Extranets)
  • Central maintenance and support


  • This is like a `private internet` for an organisation to communicate within itself, therefore not accesible to the outside world. The intranet is a network of computers that allow sharing of information in a user-friendly fashion


  • This is a collection of a number of intranets and is spread over the whole company witht he intranets being the branches, for example. An extranet allows a user access to the other intranets it contains as well as the Internet. This allows for communication within and outside the company

Characteristics of a network

Peer to Peer

  • When there are mmore than two computers, the hub provides the connectivity
  • A peer to peer network could just be twi computers linked together that can share resources, e.g. a printer
  • Commonly used in homes

Client Server

  • The server has a specialised network operating system to control user rights and to store individual user files
  • Client server networks allow centralised control over security and backup
  • A client server network uses a server to control it

Examples of Network Topologies

Star Network - Each node in a star network is connected to a central computer that controls the network.


  • If one cable fails, the other stations are not affected
  • Consistent persomance even when the network is being heavily used


  • May be costly to install because of the length of cable required
  • Reliance on central host

Bus Network - All devices share a single cable, information can be transmitted in either direction from any PC to another.


  • Easy and inexpensive to install
  • Easy to add more stations


  • The whole network goes down if the main cable…


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