Communicable Diseases & Bioenergetics

  • Created by: Lunarus
  • Created on: 06-03-20 21:09


  • The sum of all reactions in the body.
  • Energy from respiration is used by enzymes that regulate metabolism.
  • Includes conversion of glucose to starch, glycogen and cellulose as well as the formation of lipids from glycerol and fatty acids.
  • Starch + carbohydrase (or amylase) -> sugar
  • Proteins + protease -> amino acids
  • Lipids + lipase -> fatty acids + glycerol


  • Heart rate, breathing rate and breath volume increase to supply muscles with more oxygenated blood.
  • During long periods of exercise muscles stop contracting efficiently.
  • Insufficient oxygen leads to anaerobic respiration.
  • The incomplete oxidation of glucose causes a build up of lactic acid and creates an oxygen debt.
  • Blood travelling through the muscles transports lactic acid to the liver, where it is converted back to glucose.
  • Oxygen debt is the amount of extra oxygen needed to react with the accumulated lactic acid to remove it from cells.

Communicable diseases

  • Pathogens are microorganisms that cause infectious diseases, which are spread by water or air.
  • Bacteria and viruses reproduce rapidly inside the body.
  • Bacteria produce toxins that damages tissue.
  • Viruses live and reproduce inside cells, which causes cells to burst.

Viral diseases

~ Symptoms of fever and rashes.
~ Most are vaccinated against it.
~ Spread by inhalation of droplets from sneezes and colds.

~ Flu-like symptoms.
~ Leads to AIDs when the immune system becomes badly damaged and can no longer deal with other infections.
~ Spread by sexual contact or bodily fluids, such as blood through needles.
~ Can be controlled with antiretroviral drugs.

~ Symptoms of discolouration on leaves in a mosaic pattern.
~ Affects many species of plants, including tomatoes.
~ Controlled by isolating infected plants.

Bacterial diseases

~ Symptoms of thick yellow…


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