Russian agriculture was reformed. Traditionally, peasants had worked on small farms with limited technology. Stalin planned to merge all smaller farms into larger "collective" farms. These would pool more resources. Tractors and fertilisers would also modernise production. More socialist. 

Why collectivise?

Economic reasons(before)

  • 1926 saw record grain harvests for the USSR. 1927,28,29 were poorer than they ever were.
  • The decrease in production forced the price of agriculture products up.
  • Standard of living (urban areas) declined.
  • Affected the Soviet Government
  • 1921: Russia's government started selling grain surpluses to gain foreign currency for resources. If there was no grain there would be no money.
  • 80% of farmers were women

Economy (after)

  • large farms would increase efficiently
  • accompanied by mechanisation
  • fewer people on farms, extra manpower for developing industry
  • increase in production so overseas trade is easier


  • Peasants were still using traditional farming techniques
  • Peasant attitudes were conventional
  • Lack of revolutionary spirit - produced only for themselves
  • Led communism supporters to believe collective farms were essential if they wanted to embrace socialism.


  • Stalin's desire to initiate Collectivisation was motivated by the struggle against Bukharin and right-wing
  • Appealed to left-wing
  • Right = import grain, reducing pace of industrialisation as money could be spent elsewhere
  • Stalin knew little about agriculture, Russia could be transformed by leadership. Peasants who refused were terroists and enemies

Grain Procurement Crisis (1927-1929)

Illustrates all three factors: ideological/political/economic

The crisis acted as a catalyst which ended the NEP and ushered a new era


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