Collectivisation: types of farm

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Types of collective farm: Sovkhoz

  • First created in the early 1920s and seen by communists as the ideal type of farming
  • Farms owned and run by the state, with peasants paid a wage to work on them
  • Created on land confisicated from former large estates
  • Workers were landless peasants and many objected to being wage-labourers

Types of collective farm: Kolkhoz

  • 50-100 peasant farms were merged and all livestock, land and tools were pooled
  • Overseen by an elected committee led by a Communist Party member
  • Each household could keep a private plot of 1 acre
  • Owned and run by the government, who set high production targets (up to…


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