- Created by: karishandy
- Created on: 18-08-18 15:32
Ending of the Cold War, 1985-91
- Reagan 1981-89 / Bush 1989
- Brezhnev 1985 / Gorbachev 1985-91 / Yeltsin 1991
- Thatcher 1990 / Major 1990-7
- 1985 - Gorbachev becomes leader of USSR. Initiates campaign of openness ‘glasnost’ and restricting ‘perestroika’
- 1986 - October - Reagan and Gorbachev resolve to remove all intermediate nuclear missiles from Europe
- 1987 - October - Reagan and Gorbachev agree to remove all medium and short range nuclear missiles.
- 1989 - January - Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan.
June - Poland becomes independent.
September - Hungary becomes independent.
November - Berlin Wall demolished and East Germany allows unrestricted migration to West Germany.
December - Communist governments fall in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Rumania.
- 1990 - March - Lithuania becomes Independent
May - Yeltsin elected as President of Russia
October - Germany reunited.
- 1991 - August - End of Soviet Union, Cold War ends.
- Gorbachev and the ending of the Cold War
Problems of 1960-70’s
- 1930-70’s, Soviet geared for heavy industry and military - production of steel and cement - Common economy.
- Brezhnev stagnation in 1970s was aggravated by Afghanistan war, this led to further economic stagnation / stand still between 1979-85.
- 1970s, Low morale of Soviet workers harmed the economy, led to cynicism, alcoholism and less pride.
- Brezhnev years was energy inefficient with oil and natural gas, very costly. Due to decline in foreign sales of oil and purchasing food abroad there was a trade imbalance.
- 1980s, Soviet economy now had negative GNP, soviet economy in decline.
- Believed economy needed radical change.
- October 1985, Gorbachev published plan to increase production of consumer goods and increase services.
- Gorbachev convinced that reductions in military spending were needed.
- Cracked down on alcoholism
- These approaches led to the ideas of openness and freedom (glasnost) and economic restructuring (perestroika).
- 1986, Chernobyl nuclear disaster exposed the backwards failing Soviet system. — Radiation killed hundred, contaminated rivers and agriculture and spread across the world due to evaporation and rainfall.
- Government reduced the importation of consumer goods and soviet citizens had less to buy, reduced revenue.
- Gorbachev made problems worse, printed too much money, money had less value.
- Soviet technology fell behind the west, despite trying to spread techniques under the 9th 5 year plan.
KAL 007 incident
- 1983, KAL 007 incident revealed old political leadership was inflexible and trapped in old CW mentality
- 1980’s, Soviets had a series of incapable elderly leaders.
- Brezhnev 1964-82; Old, physically unable to make change.
- Andropov 1982-4: Hooked up to dialysis
- Chernenko 1984-5; Dying of emphysema.
Rise of opponents to the whole political system increased after Helsinki 1975.
- Czechoslovakia - Charter 77 by Havel
- USSR - Helsinki Human Rights watch led by Sakharov and Sharonsky
- Poland -…