WHAT IS MEMORY?
Three stages in memory:
Encoding can be:
Storage can be in:
Retrieval can be by:
- Recognition-matching sensory information with information already stored in the brain
- Free recall-independent recollection of information stored in the brain
GLANZER AND CUNITZ
Serial position curve
Last few words-Recency effect (most recent words displace the words prior to them due to limited capactiy of short term memory)
First few words-Primacy effect (words viewed first are transferred from STM to Long term memory)
MULTISTORE MODEL OF MEMORY
- Stores unprocessed info
- Capacity depends on how much the senses can register at any given time
- Lasts for fractions of a second (length of stimulus)
- Information is encoded the same as stimuli
Short term memory:
- Stores information for short periods of time
- Limited to between 5 and 9 digits
- Duration of up to 30 seconds unless distracted
- Mostly acoustic encoding but can be visual and sometimes semantic
Long term memory:
- Stores a vast quantity of information for long periods of time
- Uncertain if a limit exists
- Information can last a lifetime
- Usually semantic encoding but depends upon the stimulus (smells, sounds, photographs)
Loss of information:
- LTM-interference/retrieval failure/decay
- Sensory to STM-RECODING PROCESS
- STM to LTM-REHEARSAL TRANSFER
- LTM to STM-RETRIEVAL
- Information is retained in STM through rehearsal
Encoding in STM
Presented 2 visual lists of letters to participants. One list was acoustically simmilar and the other acoustically dissimilar. Ppts were then asked to recall the letters in the correct order.
Acoustically similar words were harder to recall so suggests that STM is encoded acoustically
Presented pps with an acoustic list of numbers each list progressively getting longer by one digit. Pps were asked to recall the numbers in the correct order immediately after hearing the list. The longest chain they recalled correctly was their capacity for STM. He concluded that most people have a span of 7 plus/minus 2 digits as their capacity for STM.
Has a 7second memory due to a virus detryong his short term memory.
He can still hear and appreciate music which shows that his long term memory is unaffected.
He can't read/watch a film because he can't remember what happened a few…