Class differences in achievement - external factors

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  • Created by: Tayabah01
  • Created on: 09-05-16 19:28

Centre for Longitudinal Studies - by the age of 3, children from disadvantaged backgrounds already up to one year behind

'Cultural equipment' - language, self-discipline and reasonal skills.

Culutural deprivation theorists - W/C families fail to socialise their children adequately, children grow up culturally deprived - underachieve


Hubbs Tait et Al  -  where parents use language that challenges their children to evaluate their own abilities, cognitive performance improves.

Leon Fernstein - educated parents most likely to use language in this way, more likely to use praise - children develop a sense of their own competence

Carl Bereiter and Siegfried Engelmann - language used in lower class homes is deficient - communicate by gestures single words or disjointed phrases - children fail to develop neccessary language skills - unable to take advantages of opportunities schools offer


Bernstein - differences between WC and MC language that influence achievement

Restricted code - WC - limited vocab - single words/gestures - context bound

Elaborated code - MC - wide vocab - varied and abstract idea - context free

Elaborated puts MC children at an advantage - used by teachers, textbooks, exams - Bernstein says it is an effective tool for analysing and reasoning thoughts clearly. Early socialisation into EC, means MC fluent speakers of code, thus they feel more at home in school, more likely to succeed.

Critics - Bernstein is a cultural deprivation theorist because he describes WC speech as inadequate but unlike others, he recognises that the school and not just home influence childrens achievement


Douglas  - WC placed less value on education - less ambitious for their children - less encouragement - low levels of motivation for their children

Fernstein - parents education affects children's schievement MC better educated - able to give their children advanatage

Parenting style- Educated parents' - more discipline, high expectations, active learning support, less educated parents - harsh incosistent discipline, 'doing as youre told' - prevents self control and independence - poor motivation at school

Parents educational behaviors - Educated parents read to their children, teach them letters, rhymes etc - get better advice on childrearing, more successful in establishing good relationships with teachers - recognise


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