Citizenship Theme B - LAW AND CONSTITUTION




  • proposed by gov in power, presented in manifesto
  • prompted by current events e.g. new technology
  • prompted by issues covered in media or pressure groups.

Law Making process:

Green Paper= Proposal for new law called a bill. Only discussion.

White Paper= Publishes a proposal for new law.

First Reading= First time law is presented to Parliament

Second Reading= Bill read out for the second time and debated on.

Commitee stage HOC= Committee between 15 to 50 MPs, amend.

Third Reading= Amended and debated and voted on one last time in HOC

Committee Stage HOL= (HOL have 1st, 2nd, 3rd reading too but Committee stage is different)- The whole 800 peers in HOL debate without time limit for better scrutiny.

Ping Pong= if HOL amends bill, it goes back to HOC, if keep disagreeing then it goes back and forth = ping pong.

Royal Assent = After bill passed by both Houses, it goes to be signed by Monarch and given Royal Assent, but Monarch has no real power to refuse a bill. Then it becomes an Act of Parliament and passes into .


British Constitution:

  • Defines the laws and political principles of UK.
  • Key principle = parliamentary sovereignty (parliament is legal authority that makes/changes laws)
  • Consists of laws and legislation passed by Parliament, Conventions, Common Law or Case Law.

Uncodified and Codified Constitutions:

Codified = Single dodcument, outlines the way a political state is governed. 3 main principles of codified constitution:

  • Authoritative- defines the way that political insititutions including legislature, operate.
  • Entrenched- extremely difficult


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