TROELTSCH - defined churches as large organisations which are universalistic.
On the other hand, he defined sects as small, exclusive groups which are hostile and require a high level of commitment.
Both claim a monopoly of truth.
BUT.. Bruce says churches are no longer churches in Troeltsch's sense, because they have lost their power and have become denominations.
Also, Neibuhr (1929) describes denominations, e.g Methodism, as lying midway between churches and sects. They are not as demanding as sects, and do not claim truth.
A cult is a loose knit group, tolerant of other organisations and doesn't need strong commitment.
Stark & Bainbridge define sects as a result from splits in existing organisations - they break away from churches, usually…