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The dominant framework

Wyness says that childhood a natural state that we all go through therefore will be found amoung all cultures and societies

Prout and James named this the dominant framework: Child- Nature, Simple, Amoral, Asocial, Person-in-waiting, Becoming WHEREAS Adult- Culture, Complex, Moral, Social, Personhood, Being. This view of children product of modernity in which adults associated with rationality

Wyness three main feature of framework: children are opposites to adults, not seen in their own rights but what they will become, children regarded as earliest stage of individuality

Childhood as social construction

Pilcher identifies cultural variations: Samoan children expected to work and do dangerous jobs, Tikopia in Pacific Ocean children not expected to obey adults

Aries researched and found no childhood concept in medieval times: chronological age not considered; infant mortality high; not protected or seen as innocent; few specialist child clothes

Aries criticised for too small sample group, assumption no childhood in medieval times, may just have been different

Aries beileves childhood emerged end of medieval, modernity,


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