Child Language Acquisition - Phonology - How are sounds made?



- Sounds in English are produced as a result of air from the lungs coming up through the vocal cords and being manipulated in various ways.

- There are various different places where consonants are formed:

Balabial - Two lips

Labio-Dental - Top teeth against bottom lip

Dental - Tongue against teeth

Alveolar - Tongue against the alveolar ridge

Palatal - Part of the tongue against hard palate

Velar - Part of the tongue against soft palate

Glottal - Using glottis

- There are various different phonemes:

-          Plosives (p(pip), b(bib), t(ten), d(den), k(cat), g(get))

o       Plosives are explosions which are created by obstructing the flow of air by bringing parts of the mouth together, then letting go suddenly.

o       English plosives are differentiated from each other in two ways: they are made in different places in the mouth and use different amounts of voices.

o      p and b are bilabial

o      t and d are alveolar

o      k and g are velar

-          Fricatives (f(fish), v(van), θ(thigh), ð(thy), s(set), z(zen), ʃ(ship), ʒ


Paul Dutton


A useful resource which clearly and concisely gives plenty of information. A handy guide for some quick revision.  



I love it!