- Sounds in English are produced as a result of air from the lungs coming up through the vocal cords and being manipulated in various ways.
- There are various different places where consonants are formed:
Balabial - Two lips
Labio-Dental - Top teeth against bottom lip
Dental - Tongue against teeth
Alveolar - Tongue against the alveolar ridge
Palatal - Part of the tongue against hard palate
Velar - Part of the tongue against soft palate
Glottal - Using glottis
- There are various different phonemes:
- Plosives (p(pip), b(bib), t(ten), d(den), k(cat), g(get))
o Plosives are explosions which are created by obstructing the flow of air by bringing parts of the mouth together, then letting go suddenly.
o English plosives are differentiated from each other in two ways: they are made in different places in the mouth and use different amounts of voices.
o p and b are bilabial
o t and d are alveolar
o k and g are velar
- Fricatives (f(fish), v(van), θ(thigh), ð(thy), s(set), z(zen), ʃ(ship), ʒ…