- Acquisition of inflections
Cruttenden (1879) divided the acquisition of infections into three stages:
Stage 1 [Inconsistent Usage]:
Children memorise words on individual basis
No regard for general inflection rules
They may produce correct plural form of "foot" (feet), and "run" (ran)
Stage 2 [Consistent Usage but sometimes misapplied]:
Children show awareness for principles governing inflections
May apply regular endings to words that requires irregular inflections
They may observe that plural nouns usually end in -s, so use "foots" as plural for "foot"
May observe that past tense forms usually end in -ed, so use "runned" instead of "ran" (known as overgeneralisation/overregularisation)
Stage 3 [Consistent Usage]:
Correct inflections used, including irregular forms
Acquired later on in grammatical development
Children struggle to use them accurately
a, the, one, my, some, many, this
- Stages of Grammatical Development
Holophrastic/one-word stage (12-18 months):
One-word utterances "cup", "Mummy"
Use of holophrases (when a single word is used to convey a more complex message) "juice" might mean "pass me the juice", and parent uses context to understand meaning
Understanding of syntax more advanced than use (children can respond to two-word utterances but cannot produce them)
Two-word stage (18-24 months):
Sequences tend to be subject + verb "Jenny sleep"
When repeating speech, words that convey less meaning are omitted "play garden" replaces "I want to play in…