The name of the salt produced in a neutralisation reaction can be predicted. The first part of the name is 'ammonium' if the base used is ammonia. Otherwise, it is the name of the metal in the base. The second part of the name comes from the acid used:
- Chloride (if hydrochloric acid is used)
- Nitrate (if nitric acid is used)
- Sulfate (if sulfuric acid is used)
The table shows some examples:
Acid+Base→Salt + Water Hydrochloric acid + Copper oxide → Copper chloride + water Sulfuric acid + Sodium hydroxide → Sodium sulfate + water Nitric acid + Calcium hydroxide → Calcium nitrate + water
Many artificial fertilisers are ammonium salts, made by the reaction of an acid with ammonia solution. For example:
AcidAlkaliFertiliser Nitric acid Ammonia solution Ammonium nitrate Phosphoric acid Ammonia solution Ammonium phosphate
Crystallising salt solutions
You may be asked to describe how to make a soluble salt.
If the base dissolves in water, you need to add just enough acid to make a neutral solution. Check a small sample with universal indicator paper. If ammonia solution is used, you can add a little more than needed to get a neutral solution.
Warm the salt solution to evaporate the water. You get larger crystals if you evaporate the water slowly.
Copper oxide, and other transition metal oxides or hydroxides, do not dissolve in water. If the base does not dissolve in water, you…