Group 1- The Alkali Metals
- Silvery solids
- Their hydroxides dissolve in water to give an alkaline solution.
As you go down the group the metals become:
1) Bigger- there is one extra full shell of electrons for each row you go down.
2) More reactive- the outer electron is further away from the nucleus so is more easily lost.
3) Higher density- the atoms have more mass, the three at the top (lithium, sodium and potassium) are less dense then water.
4) Lower melting and boiling point.
- The metals are very reactive, have to be stored in oil and handled with forceps
- They have 1 outer shell electron which makes them very reactive, and gives them all the similar properties.
- They are keen to lose that one outer shell electron and form a 1+ ion.
- Always form ionic compounds.
Reaction with Water
- When lithium, sodium and potassium are put in water they react very vigourously.
- Move around the surface, fizzing.
- Produce hydrogen, potassium…