Chemistry - Topic 8 + a little of Topic 9

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Topics 8/9 - Acids and Alkalis/Reactions of Acids

Topic 8 (General)

Non-metal elements can react with oxygen to form compounds called non-metal oxides. 

Non-metal oxides whih dissolve in water produce acidic solutions.

Alkaline solutions are made when soluble metal oxides or metal hydroxides dissolve in water.

The pH Scale

Acids have a pH of less than 7.

Alkalis have a pH of more than 7.

Neutral solutions (eg water) have a pH of 7.


A substance with a pH higher than 7 (alkali) which has a high concentration of hydroxyl ions. Bases react with acids to form a salt + water. This process is called neutralisation. Metal hydroxides, carbonates and oxides are all bases.

The ions present in acidic and alkaline solutions (credit)

  • In water and in neutral solutions the concentration of H+(aq) and OH-(aq) is the same. This is why water is neutral.
  • An acidic


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