Chemistry Topic 2 Ionic Bonding

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 13-10-12 08:23

In ionic bonding, the electrons are either lost or gained to from negative and a positive ion. As the attraction between + and - of the opposite charge; they are strongly attracted to one another.

Therefore in the case of chlorine. Chlorine has seven electrons in it's outer shell, therefore it will want to gain that extra electorn whilst for instant sodium has one electron in it's outer shel in which it wants to lose. The Chlorine gains the negative electron from the Sodium which makes it into a negative ion because their are more electrons then protons to balance it out into a neutral atom. The Sodium loses that electron making it a positive atom since the protons outweigh the electrons.

The elements which are most likely to form ions are Group 1,2,6 and 7. Group 1 and 2 elements are metals and they lose an electron  to from a + ion or a cation. Whilst Group 6 and 7 are non metals. They gain electrons to form negative ions or Cations.  When a cation bonds with a anion; they create an ionic bonding. Only elements at the opposite sides of the periodic table will form ionic bondings.

When your draw these cations and anions in the form of a dot and cross diagram. You have to after transfering the electrons place a bracket around each of the electrons and place what charge they are in the top right hand corner.

When the reaction occurs the cations keep their original name whilst the anions have compound names.

Cations: Magnesium, Aliminuim, Pottasium, hydrogen, ammonium (N04 +1)

Anions: Chloride , Iodide, carbonate, sulphate, hydroxide.

If their is a -ide at the end of a compound then it contains only one type of atom e.g. sulfide. When their is an -ae at the end of a compound, then it has more than one type of atom, for example carbonate contains carbon and oxygen.

Cations: Chloride (-1), Barium (-1), Iodide (-1), Nitrate (N03-),Hydroxide (OH-), Oxide (O-2), Sulfide (S-2), Sulphite (S03 -2), Sulfate (SO4 -2), Carbonate (CO3 -2).

When figuring out the formula of the compounf, just swap the charges of the element. For example, Potassium Oxide. When you work out this formula, it helps you when it comes to the dot and rcoss diagram where their not enough places on the electron shells for the atom. The K20 means that we need to Pottasium ions and one oxide ion.

K +1  O -2

Then switch the charges so that the atom becomes neutral.

K20

Cation+ anion goes on to form a ionic substance. Ionic compounds form a regular lattice structure. The ions that are formed are tightly packed close together in the regular lattice arrangement joined by the strong ionic bonds between the oppositely charged ions. If you have a stronger charge, for example +2 and -2 then you will need a high amount of energy to break the attraction. This is why ionic bonds have a high melting and boiling point. They can…

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