Atoms consist of electrons surrounding a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons. Neutrons are neutral, but protons and electrons are electrically charged: protons have a relative charge of +1 and electrons have a relative charge of -1.
Atoms and elements
All substances are made of tiny particles called atoms. An element is a substance that is made of only one sort of atom. There are about 100 different elements. These are shown in the periodic table, which is a chart with all the elements arranged in a particular way. The horizontal rows in the periodic table are called periods and the vertical columns are called groups. The elements in a group have similar properties to each other.
Metals and non-metals
The metals are shown on the left of the periodic table, and the non-metals are shown on the right. The dividing line between metals…