· Bronsted-Lowry Acid: Proton donor.
· Bronsted-Lowry Base: Proton acceptor.
· Lewis Acid: Electron acceptor.
· Lewis Base: Electron donor.
· Rate of Reaction: Change of concentration of R or P per unit of time.
· Rate determining step: Slowest step in a multi-step reaction.
· Buffer solution: Solution that resits changes in pH when small amounts of acid or base is added.
· Empirical formula: Simplest ratio of atoms of each element in a compound.
· Molecular formula: Actual number of atoms of each element in a compound, with any functional groups indicated.
· Structural formula: Shows atoms carbon by carbon, with the attached hydrogens and functional groups.
· Displayed formula: Shows how all the atoms are arranged and all of the bonds between the atoms.
· Skeletal formula: Shows bonds of the carbon skeleton with any functional groups.
· Chain isomers: Different arrangements of the carbon skeleton. Some are straight chains, others branched.
· Positional isomers: Same skeleton with the same atoms attached, but functional groups attached to a different carbon atom.
· Functional group isomers: Same atoms arranged into different functional groups.
· Stereoisomers: Same structural formula, but a different arrangement of atoms in space.
· Racemate (racemic mixture): Contains equal quantities of each enantiomer of an optically active compound.
· Acylation: Process where acyl groups are added to other molecules.
· Amides: Carboxylic Acid derivatives containing –CONH2 group.