Chemistry Definitions - Unit 4 & 5

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·         Bronsted-Lowry Acid: Proton donor.

·         Bronsted-Lowry Base: Proton acceptor.

·         Lewis Acid: Electron acceptor.

·         Lewis Base: Electron donor.

·         Rate of Reaction: Change of concentration of R or P per unit of time.

·         Rate determining step: Slowest step in a multi-step reaction.

·         Buffer solution: Solution that resits changes in pH when small amounts of acid or base is added.

·         Empirical formula: Simplest ratio of atoms of each element in a compound.

·         Molecular formula: Actual number of atoms of each element in a compound, with any functional groups indicated.

·         Structural formula: Shows atoms carbon by carbon, with the attached hydrogens and functional groups.

·         Displayed formula: Shows how all the atoms are arranged and all of the bonds between the atoms.

·         Skeletal formula: Shows bonds of the carbon skeleton with any functional groups.

·         Chain isomers: Different arrangements of the carbon skeleton. Some are straight chains, others branched.

·         Positional isomers: Same skeleton with the same atoms attached, but functional groups attached to a different carbon atom.

·         Functional group isomers: Same atoms arranged into different functional groups.

·         Stereoisomers: Same structural formula, but a different arrangement of atoms in space.

·         Racemate (racemic mixture): Contains equal quantities of each enantiomer of an optically active compound.

·         Acylation: Process where acyl groups are added to other molecules.

·         Amides: Carboxylic Acid derivatives containing –CONH2 group.



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