Compounds form when two or more elements react. The atoms can share, give or take electrons depending on the type of chemical bonding. When atoms of non-metals join together, this is named covalent bonding. When non-metals react with metals, this is named ionic bonding. In ionic bonding, if a metal loses electrons, it becomes a positive ion. When gases gain electrons, it becomes a negative ion.
Ionic bonding holds oppositely charged ions together. The ions pack neatly, because of the strong electrostatic forces that occur between them.
e.g. NaCl = a cubic lattice/structure
The ratio of the amount of atoms depends on the charges of the ions. For example, calcium ions have a positive 2 charge, while chloride have a negative 1 charge. Therefore, CaCl2 is created to neutralise the charge of…