- All matter is compose of atoms.
- The nucleus of an atom contains positive protons, with a relative mass of 1 and relative charge of +1, and neutral neutrons (except hydrogen), with a relative mass of 1 and no charge.
- Electrons orbit the nucleus in energy levels. An electron has a negative charge of -1 and very small mass.
- The number of electrons in an atom equals the number of protons, to give a neutral atom.
- The atomic number 'Z' is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus.
- The mass number 'A' is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
- Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
- Producing a mass spectrum involves ionisation, acceleration, deflection and detection of the sample…