Chemistry

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  • Created by: Kinza
  • Created on: 11-05-13 21:21

ACIDS AND ALKALI

salt = sodium chloride

ph 0-6 is acid              ph 7 is neutral                 ph 8-14 alkali(http://www.positivepotential.com.au/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PH-Chart1.jpg)

acid + alkali -> salt and water

acid + metal -> salt + hydrogen

acid + metal carbonate -> salt + water + hydrogen

A base is a substance that neutralises an acid. bases are solids but can be dissolved in water to form an alkali e.g. sodium hydroxide

All acids in water contain H+. All alkalis in water contain ionsm OH-. Whent these 2 ions react the make the formula:

 (http://cubecinema.com/cola/chemistry/figures/wation.gif)

Metal oxides and metal hydroxides are bases

e.g. Sulfuric acid + Copper oxide -> copper sulphate + water

          H2SO4     +        Cu0         ->     CuSO4          + H20

       Hydrochloric acid + copper hydroxide -> copper chloride + water

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Chalkboard with description of periodic table notation for carbon. There is a square with three values in it. Top has atomic number, center has element symbol, and bottom has atomic mass value. The atomic number equals number of protons and also the number of electrons in a neutral atom. Atomic mass equals the mass of the entire atom. (http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elements/art/006_symbol.gif)

12-6 = neutrons                                        

Rule for electron Shell: 2, 8, 8,

Number of electrons in the outer shell is the same as the number of the group the element is in. Group 0 has a full outer shell and are called noble gases.

ISOTOPES 

Chlorine has 2 isotopes. isotope of chlorine (http://images.tutorvista.com/content/structure-atom/chlorine-isotope.jpeg)Both have the same number of protons but different neutrons. 75% of the world's chlorine is the first one and 25% is the second one.

    (35 x 75) + (37

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