- Created by: ErinSunderland16
- Created on: 19-02-19 17:19
Crude Oil, hydrocarbons and alkanes:
Fractional Distillation of crude oil:
- Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons: compounds that contain only C and H atoms.
- Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation.
- The longest molecules have the strongest intermolecular forces, so they have the highest boiling point and condense nearer the bottom of the fractionating column.
- The fractions of crude oil are called: LPQ, Petrol, Kerosene, Diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil and Bitumen.
- Properties of Small molecules are: Low boiling point, Very volatile, flows easily and Ignites easily.
- Properties of Large molecules are: High boiling point, not very volatile, does not flow easily and does not ignite easily.
- Alkanes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons.
- Alkanes haven the general formula CnH2n+2
- The first four alkanes are methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10).
- The alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons because all the carbon atoms are joined by C-C single bonds.
- Cracking is a reaction which breaks long, less useful hydrocarbons into shorter, more useful hydrocarbons.
- Cracking helps to match supply and demand for the different fractions.
- A long alkane is broken into a shorter alkane (for fuels) and a shorter alkene (a chemical feedstock).
- Alkenes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons. Alkenes have the general formula CnH2n.