CHEMISTRY IN INDUSTRY

NITROGEN CHEMISTRY

NITROGEN

  • triple bond between two atoms in a diatomic molecule
  • triple bond has high enthalpy meaning nitrogen is not very reactive - lots of energy required to break bond, reactions often require a catalyst

AMMONIA

  • N2 + 3H2  2NH3
  • nitrogen hydride NH3
  • lone pair of electrons on nitrogen atom can form dative covalent bonds (such as with hydrogen atoms, meaning ammonia acts as a base)
  • trigonal pyramidal shape

AMMONIUM IONS

  • NH3 + H+ ⇌ NH4+
  • ammonia's lone pair forms a dative covalent bond with a hydrogen ion
  • tetrahedral shape
  • tested for by gently heating a sample with sodium hydroxide, causing the evolution of ammonia gas

NITROGEN OXIDES

  • NITROGEN OXIDE - colourless gas, turns to brown NO2 in air. Formed from combustion processes, thunderstorms, in soil by denitrifying bacteria. N2 + O2 → 2NO
  • NITROGEN DIOXIDE - brown gas. Formed from oxidation of NO in atmosphere. 2NO + O2 → 2NO2.
  • DINITROGEN OXIDE - colourless gas. Formed in soil by denitrifying bacteria.

NITRATE IONS

WHEN OXYGEN CONTENT IS LOW, ANAEROBIC BACTERIA REDUCE NITRATE (III) IONS IN SEQUENCE: NO2- → NO → N2O → N2

  • very soluble in water
  • made through oxidation of ammonium ions from aerobic bacteria in the soil, whereby the bacteria carry out the reactions to gain respiratory energy
  • process is NITRIFICATION

NITRATE(III) IONS

  • NO2-
  • NH4+ + 1 1/2 O2 → NO2- + 2H+ + H2O

NITRATE(V) IONS

  • NO3-
  • NO2- + 1/2 O2 → NO3-
  • tested for by gently heating a sample with sodium hydroxide and Devarda's alloy, causing the evolution of ammonia gas

EQUILIBRIUM

PRESSURE + THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT

  • increasing the…

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CHEMISTRY IN INDUSTRY

NITROGEN CHEMISTRY

NITROGEN

  • triple bond between two atoms in a diatomic molecule
  • triple bond has high enthalpy meaning nitrogen is not very reactive - lots of energy required to break bond, reactions often require a catalyst

AMMONIA

  • N2 + 3H2  2NH3
  • nitrogen hydride NH3
  • lone pair of electrons on nitrogen atom can form dative covalent bonds (such as with hydrogen atoms, meaning ammonia acts as a base)
  • trigonal pyramidal shape

AMMONIUM IONS

  • NH3 + H+ ⇌ NH4+
  • ammonia's lone pair forms a dative covalent bond with a hydrogen ion
  • tetrahedral shape
  • tested for by gently heating a sample with sodium hydroxide, causing the evolution of ammonia gas

NITROGEN OXIDES

  • NITROGEN OXIDE - colourless gas, turns to brown NO2 in air. Formed from combustion processes, thunderstorms, in soil by denitrifying bacteria. N2 + O2 → 2NO
  • NITROGEN DIOXIDE - brown gas. Formed from oxidation of NO in atmosphere. 2NO + O2 → 2NO2.
  • DINITROGEN OXIDE - colourless gas. Formed in soil by denitrifying bacteria.

NITRATE IONS

WHEN OXYGEN CONTENT IS LOW, ANAEROBIC BACTERIA REDUCE NITRATE (III) IONS IN SEQUENCE: NO2- → NO → N2O → N2

  • very soluble in water
  • made through oxidation of ammonium ions from aerobic bacteria in the soil, whereby the bacteria carry out the reactions to gain respiratory energy
  • process is NITRIFICATION

NITRATE(III) IONS

  • NO2-
  • NH4+ + 1 1/2 O2 → NO2- + 2H+ + H2O

NITRATE(V) IONS

  • NO3-
  • NO2- + 1/2 O2 → NO3-
  • tested for by gently heating a sample with sodium hydroxide and Devarda's alloy, causing the evolution of ammonia gas

EQUILIBRIUM

PRESSURE + THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT

  • increasing the…

Comments

No comments have yet been made