The Covalent Bond
A covalent bond occurs between non-metal atoms and forms a very strong bond in which electrons are shared. Atoms need to share electrons so they can fill their outer shells. A covalent bond can occur between atoms of the same element or atoms of different elements. It results in the formation of molecules.
A single covalent bond is formed when two atoms share one pair of electrons. Each atom shares one electron in the bond.
If two pair of electrons are shared, a double covalent bond is formed. Each atom shares two of its electrons in the bond.
If three pairs of electrons are shared, a triple covalent bond is formed. Each atoms shares three of its electrons in the bond.
Covalent Structures- Simple molecules
Simple covalent structures are molecules with relatively few atoms. There are strong forces between the atoms in the molecules, but there are weak forces between the molecules(weak inter-molecular forces).
This means that simple molecules have low melting and boiling points and have no overall charge so they cannot conduct electricity. They do not attract water molecules so they often dissolve in water. Covalent molecules can dissolve in non-aqueous solutions( i.e. a substance that is liquid or molten and does not contain water).
At room temperature many substances exist as gases, usually made up of molecules consisiting of more than one atom. Again, there are strong covalent bonds within them but virtually no force of attraction between them
The most common elements of…