Charles' Reign 1625-29

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  • Uncommunicative and never explained himself
  • He had no political flexibility and would not compromise with parliament
  • Strong belief in the Divine Right of Kings
  • Couldn't understand criticism or views different to his own
  • "Most inept monarch to occupy the throne since Henry VI"


  • narrow range of people and interests in court - misunderstandings were more common
  • "the king observes a rule of great decorum"
  • Charles needed order in court

Foreign Policy

  • Charles and Buckingham wanted an anti-spanish front to get the Palatinate back
  • England gave money to Denmark and to the Netherlands to support protestants
  • English army of 6000 men given to Germany
  • Sea war to cut off Spanish supplies
  • £250,000 subsidy granted in 1624 for a sea war only
  • Charles' other actions cost £2,000,000
  • The French Match in 1625 brought a dowry of £240,000

Failures in Foreign Policy

  • Mansfeld Expedition 1624 - 6,000 poorly trained and ill-equiped troops sent to fight, 4,000 starved or died of disease, the remaining 2,000 never went into battle
  • Cadiz Expedition 1625 - attack on a Spanish port to capture the 'treasure fleet' but troops were ill-disciplined and found a wine cellar instead so nothing was captured and many starved to death on the way home
  • Christian IV - sent english troops to denmark, to invade N. Germany, but they were beaten by General Wallenstein
  • La Rochelle/Ile de Rhé - another military failure



  • Charles was in need of money so had to overcome tensions between him and parliament
  • Charles appointed enemies of buckers as Sherriff's to try and limit the hassle
  • Parliament were still unhappy which Laud made worse with his sermon about Divine Right at the beginning of Parliament
  • "a royal command must be God's glory, and obedience to it a subjects honour"
  • Attacks on Buckingham so charles dismissed parliament with a warning of his control 
  • Commons had tried to impeach Buckingham so Charles had to shut down parliament without any subsidies

The Attack on Buckingham

  • Both Lords and Commons attacked him 
  • Bristol had evidence against Buckingham from the Madrid Trip in 1623, he gave evidence against buckingham and the house of lords…


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