Charles' Reign

Charles entered reign in May 1625 and appeared different to James in how he ruled, relying on Buckingham and then a small circle of inner advisers, he did not like negotiations with Parliament and followed policies in religion and foreign affairs which appeared to show he wasn't committed to Parliament or the Puritans.

Charles took his God-given rule as king very seriously, and didn't feel the need to explain his actions to Parliament. Hence, he caused confusion. He also had a stammer and had rigid etiquette rules for royal family public appearances, requiring distance to be established. He eventually had a loving relationship with Henrietta Maria of France and his eldest child Charles was born in 1630, followed by six more.

Charles provided patronage to the arts. Viscount Dorchester found he was rearranging his busts of Roman emperors when discussing support for the Palatine. Charles gave patronage to the Catholic artist Peter Paul Rubens who painted the ceiling of the Banqueting House in Whitehall, alongside Gian Lorenzo Bernini, who made a bust of the King, arousing huge suspicion. He negotiated with James and the nephew of the pope, and this seemed to be a way of 'seducing the King with symbols of Rome.' - William Prynne.

Inigo Jones, an architect, was provided patronage to build Palladian style pieces of architecture, such as the Banqueting House in Whitehall, where masques were held. This was considered 'profoundly un-English.'

Parliament doubted Charles' committment to the Protestant Cause and consequently only have £140,000. 

£500,000 was spent by Charles to prepare the Navy for war, and the £120,000 Queen's dowry was used, but it was short of essentials and the administrative system couldn't cope. 

In October 1625, the fleet set sail for the port of Cádiz, but once the troops arrived and were ready to attack the wine, they came across a farm full of vats of wine and the food and beer ran out, causing sickness as people became hungry. The expedition returned and Buckingham, as lord admiral,

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