Chapter 4: The October Revolution

The Dual Authority: 

The Provisional Government, led by Prince Lvov, was the old Duma in a new form.

  • Not an elected body, lacked legitimate authority 
  • Its authority was limited by its unofficial partenership with the Petrograd Soviet - 'Soviet Order Number 1' decrees of the Provisional Gov were only binding is they were approved by the Petrograd Soviet; unless a Gov has control of its Gov it does not have any real power 
  • Provisional Gov moved increasingly to the right
  • Petrograd Soviet moved increasingly to the left 

Early Achievements:


Bolshevik Return: 


Stalin and Kamenev return in March. They urge accomodationism: 

  • Acceptance of situation in Petrograd
  • Co-operation with Provisional Gov
  • Alliance with other parties


From exile Lenin issues Letter from Afar. He urges: 

  • Turn the war into an international class conflict 
  • Rejection of Provisional Gov
  • No co-operation with other parties 


Lenin returns in April. He condemns accomodation. Delivers April Thesis: 

  • Abandon all co-operation with other parties
  • Work for true revolution 
  • Overthrow the Provisional Government 


Lenin's strategy for Bolshevik Takeover: 

  • 'Peace': Continuing war with Germany 
  • 'Bread': Chronic food shortage 
  • 'Land': Disruption in the countryside 
  • 'All power to the Soviets' 

The Provisional Goverment and its problems:

  • Continuation of the war, unless it did not continue its involvement, it would not recieve the supplies and war-credits from the western allies on which it had come to rely. 
  • The July Days: Provoked by the Ukrainian question. Protests that only an all-Russian constituent assembly could properly decide such matters. The ministerial clash coincided with large-scale street demonstrations in Petrograd. The demonstrations of early June turned into a direct


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