Challenge of Israeli-Palestinian peacemaking 1990-2011/ CHAPTER 10


1. Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement 1993

    - December 1988 (peak of the first Intifada)- USA opened secret talks with PLO.
    - They wanted PLO's chairman Arafat to reject terrorism
    - Arafat also spoke about two state solution to the conflict (this means he recognised the state of Israel)
    - As he now recognised Israel, USA was ready to negotiate openly with PLO and to urge Israelis to open peace talks
    - At first, Israelis did not want to agree to this. They viewed Arafat and PLO as terrorists. Israeli prime minister said no to withdrawal from the occupied territories, no to recognition of the PLO, no to a Palestinian state
    -USA wanted to have the support of major Arab states such as Egypt and Saudi. They also wanted to keep the support of Western countries who were dependent on oil imports
    - As the Soviet Union collapsed, it was easier to cooperate with Soviets (they requested US aid) and also Arab leaders who could not rely on Soviet help anymore.
    - As a result, this meant that USA did not have to support Israel in order to maintain their power in the region. This meant that they could push Israelis into making peace.
    - September 1991- US president threatened to withhold $10 billion of loans to Israel. This had a huge effect.
    -October 1991 - Israelis aggred to hold face-to-face talks with Palestinian leaders.
    - Palestinians talked about the need to compromise but Israeli leader Shamir was still intransigent.
    - USA still put pressure on Israel EG - to stop building more Jewish settlements in the occupied territories OR they will lose their financial aid.
    -1992- elections were held in Israel and new moderate government came to power. This helped to work for peace with the Palestinians
  • OSLO ACCORD 1993
    -1993- secret talks were held in neutral Norway. 14 sessions of talks over 8 months
    - September 1993 - PLO leader Arafat and the head of the new Israeli government Rabin, exchanged letters in which Arafat rejected the use of terrorism, called for an end to the Intifada and recognised the state of Israel. Rabin, in his letter, recognised the PLO as "the representative of the Palestinian people".
    - 13 September 1993 - Arafat and Rabin singed an agreement (Oslo Accord) which paved the way for a self-government for the Palestinians.
    - Arafat and Rabin agreed to:
    1. Israeli troops to be withdrawn from Gaza and parts of the West Bank. HOWEVER, Israeli troops would not be withdrawn from military bases and Jewish settlements in West Bank or from Jerusalem
    2. Elections would be held for a Palestinian Authority to run the West Bank and Gaza for 5 years
    3. During these 5 years a final settlement would be discussed
    -Oslo Accord was not really a peace treaty. It only established a timetable for Palestinian self-government but it did not answer…


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