Animal and Plant Cells:
- Animal cells consist of...
- A nucleus, which controls all the activities of the cell and also contains the instructions for making new cells or organisms.
- The cytoplasm, a liquid gel in with most of the chemical reactions needed for life take place. One the most important reactions is respiration.
- The cell membrane, which controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell.
- The mitochondria, structures in the cytoplasm where oxygen is used and most of the energy is released during respiration.
- Ribosomes, where protein synthesis takes place. All proteins needed in the cell are made here.
- Plant cells have all the features of a typical animal cell, but all plant cells also have...
- A cell wall made of cellulose which strengthens the cell and gives it support.
- Many plant cells also have these other features...
- Chloroplasts, found in all green parts of the plant. They are green because they contain the green substance chlorophyll which gives the plant its colour. They absorb energy from the sun, to make food using photosynthesis.
- A permanent vacuole (a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap) which is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
- Chemical reactions happen in cells all the time.
- Each reaction is controlled by an enzyme, (a protein, which controls the rate of a very specific reaction).
- These enzymes are found in the mitochondria (and the chloroplasts in plant cells).
- Enzymes for...
- Respiration are found in the mitochondria,
- Photosynthesis are found in the chloroplasts,
- Protein synthesis are found on the surface of the ribosomes.
- Some cells have a specific job in animals or plants.
- Specialised cells are often grouped together to form a tissue. Several different tissues work together to do particular jobs, forming organs and in turn different organ systems carry out major functions in the body such as transporting the blood and digestion.
- Fat cells are storage cells, which store fat when you eat more of it than you need.
- They have a large area where fat can be stored.
- They have very few mitochondria…