Eukaryotes and prokaryotes 


  • Includes all plant and animal cells
  • Often complex


  • Single celled organisms
  • Smaller and simplier that eukaryotes 
  • Includes bacteria cells

Animal cells: 

  • Nucleus = genetic material
  • Mitochondria = most aerobic respiration takes place, the powerhouse of the cell
  • Ribosomes = where proteins are made
  • Cell membrane = holds the cell together and controls whay goes in and out
  • Cytoplasm = where most reactions takes place

Plant cell

  • Has usually all the other parts that animal cells have
  • Chloroplasts = where phtosynthesis takes place, contains a green substance which absorbs the light needed for photosynthesis 
  • Vacuole = contains cell sap, a weak solution including sugar and salts
  • Cell wall = made out of cellulose, supports and strengthens the cell

Bacteria cells

  • Cell wall
  • Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • No chloroplasts or mitochondria
  • Don't have a true nucleus - instead they have a circular strand of DNA that floats freely in the cytoplasm
  • They may contain one or more small rings of DNA calls plasmids


  • Microscopes allow us to see things we can't already see with our eyes
  • Light microscopes use light microscopes use light and lenses to form a image of a specimen and magnify it.


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