All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions.

Animal cells and plant cells have features in common, such as a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes. Plant and algal cells also have a cell wall, and often have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole. Bacterial and yeast cells have different structures to animal and plant cells.

Dissolved substances pass into and out of cells by…


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