Cell structure

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  • Created by: Rachh
  • Created on: 08-01-13 17:24

Prokaryotic organisms are prokaryotic cells (smaller and simpler single-called organisms eg bacteria).
Eukaryotic organisms are eukaryotic cells (complex cells that include all animal and plant cells).

Organelles are part of cells. Each one has a specific function.

Eukaryotic cell organelles:
Plasma membrane - the membrane found on the surface of animal cells and just inside the cell wall of plant cells and prokaryotic cells. It's made mainly of lipids and proteins. It regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell. It also has receptor molecules on it which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones.

Microvilli - folds in the plasma membrane that increase the surface area. They are found on cells involved in absorption, such as epithelial cells in the small intestine.

Nucleus - a large organelle surrounded by a nuclear envelope (double membrane) which contains many pores to allow substances to move between the nucleus and cytoplasm. It often contains a structure called the nucleolus. DNA controls the cell's activities. The nucleolus makes ribosomes.

Lysosome - a round organelle with no internal structure, surrounded by a membrane. It contains digestive enzymes that can be used to digest invading cells or to break down worn out components of the cell.

Ribosome - a very small organelle that floats free in the cytoplasm or is attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It is the site where proteins…


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