Cell organelles- function and other info.

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Cytoplasm/cytosil - The solution within the cell membrane. It contains enzymes for glycolysis (part of respiration) and other metabolic reactions together with sugars, salts, amino acids, nucleotides and everything else needed for the cell to function.

Nucleus - Largest organelle (except in red blood cells and phloem sieve tubes). Takes up stains more readily than cytoplasm. Surrounded by Nuclear envelope (double membrane) with nuclear pores, large holes containing proteins that control the exit of substances of RNA and ribosomes from the nucleus. 
Inside the nucleus is the nucleoplasm which is full of chromatin - containing the genes. During cell division, the chromatin gets condensed to chromosomes. It's function is to control the function of it's cell.

Mitochondria - 8 micrometers long, where aerobic respiration.Surrounded by double membrane - outer membrane is permeable whilst the inner membrane is folded into cristae, increasing the surface area. The space enclosed by the inner membrane is the matrix, which is the site of the stages of aerobic respiration (The krebs cycle).
Also, ATP is made here from oxygen and energy containing molecules made from glucose. The ATP is synthesised on the studded stalked particles on the innner membrane. 

Chloroplast - Where protein synthesis takes place. Have a double membrane, and a third membrane = Thykaloid membrane. This is made from stacks of grana inside the chloroplast. The grana contain cholorophyll - where light dependant reactions of photosynthesis takes place. The light energy captured by the chlophyll is used to split water molecules to provide hydrogen ions which are then used to make ATP and reduced NADP which are then used to make carbohydrates using carbon dioxide from the air. These light dependant reactions take place in the Stroma = background material of chloroplast. 
C.plasts also contain starch grains. Starch is a carb used as an energy storage in plants.   

Ribosomes - sites of protein synthesis made of protein and RNA and are manufactured in the nucleolus. They are either found free in the cytoplasm where they make proteins for the cell's own use, or are found attached to the RER where they make proteins for export from the cell. 

SER - Series of membrane channels involved in synthesising and transporting materials, mainly lipids, needed by the cell. Usually continuous from the nuclear envelope. Two e.g's of function: - production of eostrogen and testosterone in ovary and testicles


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