Cell structure


Eukaryotic organisms 

  • Eukaryotic cells make up multiple cellular organisms such as plants or animals. 
  • They are complec cells with a nucleus and membrane bound organelle. 

Cell structure and function 


  • Largest organelle 
  • Dark patches- chromatin 
  • Surrounded by nuclear envelope 
  • Composed of double membrane 
  • Has nuclear pore 
  • Nucelus- controls cells acitivies
  • Nucleolus- makes ribosomes 
  • Nuclear pore- allows substances to move between nucleus and cytoplasm. 

Rough endoplasmic reticulum 

  • A system of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space. 
  • The surface is covered with ribosomes. 
  • Folds and processes proteins. 

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 

  • Similar to rough endoplasmic reticulum, but with no ribosomes. 
  • Synthesises and processes lipids. 


  • 2 membranes separated by a fluid filled space. 
  • Inner membrane is folded to form cristae. 
  • Central part is the matrix. 
  • The site of aerobic respiration. 
  • Aerobic respiration produces ATP- a common energy source in the cell.

Glogi vesicle 

  • Small fluid filled sac produced by glogi. 
  • Transports lipids and proteins out of the cell. 


  • Spherical sacs surrounded by a single membrane. 
  • Contains digestive enzymes which break down mateirals. 
  • E.g. specalised lysosome (acrosome) in head of sperm helps it penetrate the egg. 

Glogi apparatus 

  • A stack of membrane bound, fluid filled, flattened sacs.
  • Processes and packages new lipids and proteins. 


  • Double membrane. 
  • Inner membrane makes a netword of thylakoids. 
  • A stack of thylakoids is called a granum. 
  • Site where photosynthesis takes place. 
  • Convert light energy of the sun into sugars that can be used by cells. 

Vacuoles (plants)

  • Membrane bound organelle found in the cytoplasm. 
  • Contains cell sap a weak solution of sugar and salts.
  • Surrounding membrane is called the…


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