Cell Organelles, Function and Characteristics

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  • Created by: StevenJ00
  • Created on: 04-05-18 17:05

Plasma Membrane

  • It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, with proteins embedded in the layer.
  • The membrane is selectively permeable and regulates the transport of materials into and out of the cell. Separates cell contents from outside the environment.

Cytoplasm

  • A thick, gelatinous, semi-transparent fluid
  • Maintains cell shape and stores chemicals needed by the cell for metabolic reactions.

Nucleus

  • The largest organelle of a eukarotic cell and is surrounded by a nuclear envelope. The envelope has nuclear pores which allow the movement of molecules through it. It also contains chromatin.
  • It controls cellular activity and houses genetic material called chromatin, DNA and proteins, from which comes the instructions for making proteins.

Nucleolus

  • Dense spherical structure in the middle of the nucleus
  • The nucleolus makes RNA and ribosomes.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rough ER)

  • Network of membrane bound flattened sacs called cisternae studded with ribosomes
  • Protein synthesis takes place on the ribosomes and the newly synthesised proteins are tranported to the Golgi apparatus.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth ER)

  • Network of membrane bound flattened sacs called cisternae. No ribosomes.
  • Responsible for the synthesis and transport of lipids and carbohydrates.

Golgi apparatus

  • A stack of membrane bound flattened sacs.
  • Newly made proteins are recieved here from the rough ER. The Golgi apparatus modifies the proteins and packages them into vesicles to be transported to where they are needed.

Vesicles

  • Small spherical membrane bound sacs with fluid inside
  • Transport vesicles transport materials inside the cell and secretory vesicles transport proteins that are to be released from the cell, to the cell surface membrane.

Lysosomes

  • Small spherical membrane bound sacs containing hydrolytic enzymes.
  • They break down waste material including old organelles

Ribosomes

  • Tiny organelles

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