- It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, with proteins embedded in the layer.
- The membrane is selectively permeable and regulates the transport of materials into and out of the cell. Separates cell contents from outside the environment.
- A thick, gelatinous, semi-transparent fluid
- Maintains cell shape and stores chemicals needed by the cell for metabolic reactions.
- The largest organelle of a eukarotic cell and is surrounded by a nuclear envelope. The envelope has nuclear pores which allow the movement of molecules through it. It also contains chromatin.
- It controls cellular activity and houses genetic material called chromatin, DNA and proteins, from which comes the instructions for making proteins.
- Dense spherical structure in the middle of the nucleus
- The nucleolus makes RNA and ribosomes.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rough ER)
- Network of membrane bound flattened sacs called cisternae studded with ribosomes
- Protein synthesis takes place on the ribosomes and the newly synthesised proteins are tranported to the Golgi apparatus.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth ER)
- Network of membrane bound flattened sacs called cisternae. No ribosomes.
- Responsible for the synthesis and transport of lipids and carbohydrates.
- A stack of membrane bound flattened sacs.
- Newly made proteins are recieved here from the rough ER. The Golgi apparatus modifies the proteins and packages them into vesicles to be transported to where they are needed.
- Small spherical membrane bound sacs with fluid inside
- Transport vesicles transport materials inside the cell and secretory vesicles transport proteins that are to be released from the cell, to the cell surface membrane.
- Small spherical membrane bound sacs containing hydrolytic enzymes.
- They break down waste material including old organelles
- Tiny organelles…