cell biology notes

  • Created by: raaaaw
  • Created on: 10-03-20 16:00

hardest areas for me in cell biology topic 

sizes of cells 

100cm is 1m 

10mm is 1m 1x 10 to the the power of -3 m 

micro metres symbol  μm

1 x 10 to the power of -6 m 

typical human cell is 10 - 20 micro metres

 1 nano metre is 1x10 to the power of - 9 

animal cell specilisation 

sperm cells nerve cells and muscle cells ones we focus on 

most animals are specialised so that means they have adaptations that help them carry out a specific function scientists call a cell being specialised process as differentiation 

sperm cells job is to meet with a egg 

sperm cells have a long tail to swim to ovum (egg) and they are streamlined 

packed full of mitochondria this provides energy for swimming 

have enzymes to digest their way through the outer layer of the ovum 

nerve cells the job of a nerve cell is to send electrical impulses around the body 

nerve cells have an long axon carrys the electrical impulses from one part of body to another the axon is covered with myelin this insulates the axon and speeds up the transmission of the impulses 

the end of axon has synapses synapses are junctions which allow the impulse to pass from one nerve cell to another 

cell body of nerve cell has dendrites this increases surface area so that other nerve cells can connect more easily .

muscle cells job is to contract get shorter 

muscles cells contain protein fibres they can change length when a muscle cell contracts these protein fibres shorten decreasing the length of a cell 

muscle cells are packed with mitochondria to provide energy for muscle contraction 

muscle cells work together to form muscle tissue 

plant cell specialisation 

root hair cells phloem cells and xylem cells (think about hair brush structure  )


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