Categorising Dysfunctional Behaviour
There are two main diagnostic manuals, the DSM (diagnostic and statistical manual) and the ICD (international classification of diseases).
The DSM is more commonly used than the other one, used mainly in the USA. It attempts to highlight the ethnic diversity in America and suggests that diagnosis may be more difficult for the doctor if the patient is from a different culture. The DSM groups symptoms togethre into syndromes which relate to specific mental health conditions. It has evolved in response to research and changing social norms. e.g. in 1974- homosexuality was removed as a mental disorder. It is now referred to as "distress about one's sexual orientation" not that homosexuality is an illness itself. DSM is more holistic than the ICD as it uses a multi-axial system:
AXIS 1: Major Clinical Syndromes- depression, schizophrenia.
AXIS 2: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation (developmental)- anti-social personality disorder, learning difficulties- autism
AXIS 3: Physical Medical Conditions- medical problems which may lead to axis 1 or axis 2 disorders- brain injury, HIV.
AXIS 4: Psychosocial…