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  • 'a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the overall reaction'
  • ^it provides an alternative reaction pathway requiring lower activation energy so more particles have energy equal to or more than the activation energy which means there are more frequent successful collisions

Homogeneous Catalysts:

  • reactants and catalyst are in the same state
  • they react to form an intermediate which breaks down into the product and regenerates the catalyst 
  • Example: Making esters with sulfuric acid as a catalyst
  • C2H5OH(l) + CH3COOH(l) reversible reaction with H2SO4(l) =


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