Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

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Carbohydrates and Monosaccharies

Carbon atoms very readily form bonds with other carbon atoms which allows a sequence of carbon atoms to be built up. 


Many organic molecules are made up of long chains of individual molecules. Each individual molecule is called a monomer, these longer chains of repeating units are called polymers.

  • Carbohydrates monomer is a sugar or a saccharide.
  • A single monomer is called a monosaccharide.
  • A pair of monosaccharides is called a disaccharide.
  • Monosaccharides in large numbers are polysaccharides.

Monosaccharides are sweet tasting and soluble. (CH2O)n

Disaccharides and Polysaccharides


  • Glucose + glucose > maltose.
  • Glucose + fructose > sucrose.
  • Glucose + galactose > lactose.

When this happens a molecule of water is removed - this is a condensation reaction. A glycosidic bond is formed.

When water is added to a


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