Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates are organic molecules made up of carbonhydrogen and oxygen.

Monosaccharides:

Monosaccarides are single molecules, which build up to larger molecules. The general formula is (CH20)n, changing with the number of carbon atoms such as 3 (triose), 5 (pentose) or 6 (hexose). 

Glucose is a hexose sugar, and exists as two isomers- the alpha (α) and beta (β) forms. The hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (OH) groups on carbon 1 are the opposite in α and β glucose.

(http://www.phys.tue.nl/TULO/info/Sport/Epo/glucose.gif)

The main functions of monosaccharides are:

  • to make ATP as an energy source.
  • to build up to large molecules such as cellulose, starch ect.

 Disaccharides:

Two monosaccharides form a disaccharide in a condensation reaction. In this reaction a glycosidic bond is formed and water is removed. For example two glucose molecules form maltose. 

(http://content.answcdn.com/main/content/img/oxford/Oxford_Chemistry/0192801015.glycosidic-bond.1.jpg)

The main functions of disaccharides are:

  • storage.

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