Rubbing in method=scones + rock buns,
Creaming method=fairy cakes + sponge,
Whisking method=Swiss rolls,
Melting method=Flapjacks + Brownies,
Main ingredients include: flour, sugar, egg, fat and raising agent (Bicarbonate of soda, baking power or yeast).
Flour is used to:
Form the structure of the cake,
Set the shape of the cake (when heated protein/gluten sets),
For dextrinisation, starch into sugar, sugar caramelises, golden surface.
Types of starch: Wheat flour, corn flour, arrow root and bulking agent.
Fat is used to:
Add colour and flavour,
Hold air bubbles, creates texture,
Too much fat is bad for your long term health, by using low fat spread you only use half the amount of fat as butter, however they contain more water so cannot be used for baking.
Saturated fat examples: Butter, lard, suet and vegetable oils.
Unsaturated fat examples: Cooking oils. These are better for you.
Sugar is used to:
Sweeten and add flavour,
Holds air, when creamed,
When caramelised gives colour.
Types of sugar: Granulated, caster, icing, demerara and muscovado.
Function of sugar: Preserves, aerates, increase shelf-life, caramelisation, flavour, colour and stabilises.