C5 Revision notes

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Atmosphere- The gases that surround the earth, made up of Nitrogen, oxygen, argon and CO2 

Lithosphere- The outer layer of the earth (land) that consists of metals, oxygen and silicon 

Hydrosphere- The liquid layer of the earth consisting of mostly water and some dissolved substances

Electrolysis- A method used to extract metals from their ores. Breaks down electrolytes with an electric current. The positive ions go to the negative electrode and vice versa.

Metals- Strong substances that have high melting and boiling points.

Covalent bonding- Sharing electrons between atoms to give them a full outer shell. It is caused by the electrostatic attraction between the positive nuclei and the negative electrons. 

Solid ionic compounds- Form crystals  due to the negative and positive ions creating a giant lattice. Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points too. They also conduct electricity…




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