C2- salts and electrolysis

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acids and alkalis

  • water is neutral and has a ph of 7
  • acids are substances that produce H+ ions when added to water
  • when we dissolve a substance in water= aqueous solution
  • acidic- less than 7, alkali- more than 7
  • bases+acid= neutralisation
  • alkalis are bases that dissolve in water to form OH- ions
  • indicators are different colours in acidic and alkali solutions- unviersal indicator have different colours for ph- RED-acid BLUE- alkali

making salts from metals or bases

  • acids react with metals above hydrogen in reactivity series
  • potassium and sodium with a metal is too violent of a reaction to carry out
  • metal oxides and hydroxides are bases (alkali) when an acid reacts with the base a neutralisation reaction occurs
  • both methods make a salt
  • a metal or a base that is insoluble is added little at a time to an acid until all the acid reacts. the mixture is the filtered to remove excess solid reactant leaving salt solution which is evapourated
  • chlorides- hydrochloric acid
  • nitrates- nitric acid
  • sulfates- sulfuric acid

making salts from solutions

  • neutralisation between acid and alkali= H+ + OH----> H2O
  • there is no viisble change so an indicator is used to show when reaction is complete
  • solid salt can be obtained by crystallisation
  • we can make insoluble salts by mixng solutions of soluble salts that contain ions needed  e.g lead nitrate+potassium iodide= lead iodide, a precipitate is formed that can be filtered, washed with distilled water and dried
  • pollutants like metal ions in water can be removed by precipitation, substances that react with pollutant metal ions dissolve in water to form insoluble salts that can be removed


  • elecytrolysis is the process of using electricity to break sown ionic compounds into elements
  • it happens when electricity is passed through a molten ionic compound or…


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