BY5.6 Genetic Engineering

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Genetic Engineering

  • commericial applications invove the production og insulin, enzymes and hormones on a large scale

uses of genetic engineering:

  • transfer genes into bacteria so they can make useful products (e.g. insulin)
  • transfer genes into plants and animals so they can acquire new characteristics (e.g. resistance to disease)
  • transfer genes into humans so they no longer suffer from genetic diseases

recombinant gene technology:

  • when a piece of ferign DNA is incorproated into the plasmid of a bacterium

Insulin porduction:

isolating gene from a donor DNA molecule

  • insulin is a small protein
  • gene that codes for insulin is located by a probe and isolated
  • enzyme restriction endonuclease cuts DNA into smal pieces allowing the gene to be isolated into specific base sequences that the enzyme recognises
  • unpaired bases at the cur from sticky ends

inserting the gene into a vector

  • vector (plasmid) from ecoli used
  • to obtain plasmids cell walls of bacteria are dissolved ad plasmids separated from cell deris
  • circular DNA making up plasmis are cut using restriciton endonuclease
  • enxyme makes sticky ends that allows the donor DNA to be spliced into the vector DNA which occurs when donot and vector DNA are mixed together
  • sticky ends are complementary
  • DNA ligases join donor and vector DNA together
  • the created DNA is called recombinant DNA

marker genes

  • marker genes that confer antibiotic resistance are included in the recombinant DNA forming the plasmids
  • bacteria and plasmids are mixed together, onlu a small portion of the bacteria takes up the plasmids
  • bacteria culutred on a growth medium with antibitioc and only those containing the plasmid marker will sruvive
  • foreign DNA replicaes along with the rest of the plasmis every time the bacterial cell divides
  • cloning og the recombinant containing bacteria results in the production of ultiple copies of the recombinant gene
  • the bacteria divide repeatedly and give rise to a large population of bacterial cells all of which contain replicas of the foreign DNA

manufacture and advantages

  • genetically modified bacteria cultured on a large scale using a fertmenter to rpoduce insulin
  • insulin…

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