BY1.1 - Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates

  • Organic compounds
  • Contain carbon, hydrgen and oxygen
  • Used as a source of energy in plants and animals
  • Used for structural functions in plants only

There are 3 types of Carbohydrates:

  • Monosacchardies
  • Disaccharides
  • Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides:

  • Relatively small
  • Organic 
  • Follow the general formula : (CH2O)n

The name of a monosacchardies are determined by the number of carbon atoms it contains:

  • 3 carbon atoms:
    • Triose
    • Glyceraldehyde - important for metabolism
  • 5 carbon atoms:
    • Pentose 
    • Ribose - used in the formation of nucleotides
  • 6 carbon atoms:
    • Hexose
    • Glucose - main source of energy

Glucose:

  • exists as a ring structure in 2 forms:
    • Alpha
    • Beta 

Disaccharides:

  • 2 monosaccharides

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