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1.1 Chemical elements are joined together to form Biological compounds.

(a) The main elements found in living organisms. Some elements are needed in trace amounts (details not required). Key elements are present as inorganic ions: Mg2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, PO4 3– The importance of water in terms of its polarity, ability to form hydrogen bonds, surface tension, as a solvent, thermal properties, as a metabolite.

(b) Structure, properties and functions of carbohydrates: monosaccharides (triose, pentose, hexose sugars); disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose); polysaccharides (starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin). Alpha and beta structural isomerism in glucose resulting in storage and…


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