Bismarck, Weimar Republic and Kaiserreich

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  • Created by: hibaq8
  • Created on: 17-05-16 19:14


  • 1866- 6 weeks at sadowa- peace of prague- annexed 5 states- S-H, Nossau, Hanover and Frankfurt.
  • 1870- Franco-Prussian war- Treaty of Frankfurt- received £200,000 in reparations.
  • 1871- unification of Germany
  • Kulturkampf in 1871- Reasons- Catholics were a "state within a state"
  • He saw them as Reichsfeinde.
  • Paris Commune
  • They encouraged minorities which went against Bismarck's germinisation policy.
  • He had encouraged Poles to speak Polish in Polish predominant areas.
  • Syllabus of Error in 1864- said that the Church was against Nationalism, Liberalism and 'new Civilisation'.
  • Papal infallibility in 1870- the Pope is correct on all matters.
  • Centre party was set up in 1870- gained 93 seats in 1877 and in 1878 it was 94 and 100 in 1881. They became the largest party in 1874 by gaining 91 seats.
  • May Laws in 1873- 1400 parishes without clergy
  • Catholic section of the Prussian ministry of education was abolished.
  • Civil marriage was compulsory- death and birth certificates were controlled by state.
  • Clergymen had to go to university for 3 years.
  • Jesuits expelled from Germany.
  • Failure- Created an alliance with the Centre party- enemies.
  • Reintroduced tariffs- sympathised with agriculturalists- Junker Landowners.
  • Carr notes that the campaign had "seriously weakened" the empire and "only succeeded in deepening the confessional divisions in Germany".
  • 1878-9- Industrial expansion- 42,869km's railway- exposed farmers to competition- tariffs gave them finances.
  • Rivers were more accessible- including the Ruhr, Rhine and Elbe.
  • Cartes increased to 70.
  • More universities in Germany than in the world.
  • Trained work force
  • Steel 2million and coal 41 million tonnes
  • Enterprising Farmer
  • Urban population growth- 36-42% in 1890. New Labour Force- adaptable skills.
  • Anti-Socialist Law in 1878- Reason- SPD were gaining massive support. 1875 Gotha Programme- freedom of speech, press, assembly and association.
  • "Socialism like Catholicism had allegiances beyond the Nation state which Bismack could neither understand nor tolerate".
  • They had 47 newspapers- socialist propaganda would draw German peope to join them. They would be more likely to vote for them in elections.
  • Socialist vote nearly doubled in 1878-1887.
  • In 1880 600 socialists were arrested.
  • 67 Socialists were kicked out of Berlin(1879), Breslau(1879), Hamburg(1880) and Leipzig(1881).
  • Many Socialists went to USA.
  • Membership of Trade Unions reached 278,000 in 1890.
  • 'Social Democrat' was smuggled through Germany using 'Red Postmaster'.
  • Secret meetings were hed in Switzerland in 1880 and in Denmark in 1883 and 1887.
  • The SPD encouraged loyalty from members by organising courses, sports clubs etc.
  • State Sociaism in 1880's- Reason- wanted "to reconcile the working class to the authority of the state"- Williamson.
  • 1883- 3million workers received Sickness Insurance
  • 1884- 7 million workers received Accident Insurance in 1886.
  • 1889- Old Age and Validity- 70 year olds and over.
  • Massie- "had given the working class the most advanced social legislation in the world".
  • Disagreements between Kaiser and Wilhelm II- 'personal rule'- Bismarck wanted to reinstate the 1852 Prussian Cabinet Order so that ministers would have to got through Bismarck not Wilhelm.
  • Foreign policy- Russian Balkan Manouever- he stopped the Kaiser going to Russia for talks because…


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