Anaerobic respiration - respiration in which energy is released without oxygen.
Angina - Pain which is localised in chest which is caused by a restriction of blood supply to the heart muscle.
Aorta - The great artery from the left ventricle from which the systemic arterial system starts.
Arrhythmia - Irregular heart beat.
Arteries - Blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body.
Arterioles - Small blood vessels that branch from the arteries and into capillaries.
Atheroma - A deposit that builds up, mainly made up of cholesterol.
Atherosclerosis - the disease process that leads to coronary heart disease and strokes.
Atrioventricular node (AVN) - A small mass of muscular fibres at the base of the wall between the atria, conducting impulses received from the Sinoatrial node by way of the Atrioventricular bundles and, under certain conditions, functioning for the Sinoatrial node as pacemaker of the heart.
Atrioventricular valve - Two of four structures within the heart that prevent backflow by opening and closing with each heart beat.
Atrium - Either of the two upper chambers on each side of the heart that receives blood from the veins and in turn force it into the ventricles.
Blood pressure - A hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel.
Body mass index (BMI) - A weight to height ratio = Weight (kg)/Height2 (m).
Capillaries - Fine branching blood vessels that form a network between Arterioles and Venules.
Carbohydrates - Large group of compounds with the general formula Cx(H2O)n.
Cardiac cycle - The complete cycle of events in the heart from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the next.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) - Diseases of the heart and circulation.
Cholesterol -A short lipid molecule which is a viral component of cell membranes with roles in their organisation and functioning. Also from which hormones are produced from.
Condensation reaction - A reaction that removes water from between the glycerol and fatty acids to form ester bonds.
Coronary arteries - Artery which supplies blood to the heart.
Coronary heart disease - Main form of cardiovascular disease, caused by an abnormality of the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart.
Diastole - The phase of the heartbeat when elastic recoil of the heart relaxes causes low pressure in the heart, helping to refill the chambers with blood from the veins.
Diastolic Pressure - blood pressure (measured by a sphygmomanometer) after the contraction of the heart while the chambers of the heart refill with blood.
Disaccharide - Two single sugar units which join together from a condensation reaction
Electrocardiogram (ECG) - Graphical recording of the cardiac cycle produced by an electrocardiograph.
Fatty Acid - A carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group.
Fibrin - Insoluble protein formed…