B2 1

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  • Created by: Florence
  • Created on: 31-12-12 10:04

B2 1.1

  • Animals and plants are made of millions of tiny cells.
  • To see the cells you need - a light microscope that can magnify up to 400 times.
  • An animal cell is made up of -
    • cell membrane
      • Hold the cells together.
      • Controls what goes in or out of the cell.
    • Cytoplasm
      • Fills the cell
      • Where chemical reactions take place, catalysed by enzymes.
    • The cytoplasm also contains organelles such as - 
      • The Nucleus
        • Controls the cells activities.
        • Contains DNA (genetic material that provides instructions for synthesising chemicals that the cell needs).
      • Mitochondria
        • Use glucose in respiration to produce energy for the cell.
      • Ribosomes
        • Synthesise proteins from amino acids
  • Specialised Animal Cells include - 
    • Epithelial cells
      • Have cilia (tiny hair-like structures) that sway to move particles along
    • Muscle cells
      • Have fibrils which shorten in length to cause the muscle to contract
    • Sperm cells
      • Have a tail to help them move so they can find the egg.
      • Have lots of mitochondria to release energy for movement.
    • Nerve cells
      • Have long fibres that carry electrical impulses.
      • Branches of cytoplasm at each end facilitate communication with other nerve cells.

B2 1.2

  • Plant cells contain:
    • A cell wall
      • Made of cellulose..
      • Supports the cell and strengthens it.
    • Chloroplasts - Organelle
      • contain green chlorophyll that is…


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