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  • Created by: G. Marsh
  • Created on: 03-06-11 11:18


  • Ligaments have good tensile strength.
  • Cartilage acts as shock absorber
  • Synovial membranes release oily synovial fluid to lubricate joints
  • Muscles work in antagonistic pairs
  • Joints act like pivots and long bones like levers

Artificial joint replacement can have disadvantages: 

  • Body can react to the foreign body and the site can become inflamed and painful.
  • Risk of dislocation
  • Risk blood clots
  • If hip replacement, length of legs can change, cause difficulty walking
  • Not permanent, need replacing after 12-15 years


The double circulatory system

  • Blood loses pressure as travels through body
  • Blood pressure is systolic (when heart contracts) over diastolic (when heart relaxed
  • If only 2 chambered heart, single circulatory system, eg. fish
  • Humans have double circulatory system
  • Blood supply to organs alters to fit requirements

Cardiac cycle (sequence of events in 1 whole heartbeat) 1. Blood into atria through Vena cava and Pulmonary vein 2. SAN-Atria contract, blood to ventricles 3.AVN- Ventricles contract, blood out through Aorta and Pulmonary artery

  • Galen- thought: heart sucked not pumped, arterial blood made by heart


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